At Oulton First School we believe that Maths should be fun, clear and challenging; we want every child to leave us with a love of Maths and a deep grounding in the basics needed to progress. We use the Maths No Problem scheme of work.
What is Singamore Maths?
In Singapore , children had some of the worst results across a range of countries. They realised they needed to change how they taught the subject so they focused their teaching on problem solving and making sure the underlying concepts were taught clearly using a CPA method.
So what is the CPA approach?
Children and adults can find maths difficult because it is abstract. The CPA approach helps children learn new ideas and build on their existing knowledge by introducing abstract concepts in a more familiar and tangible way. The approach is so established in Singapore maths teaching, that the Ministry of Education will not approve any teaching materials which do not use the CPA approach.
Concrete is the “doing” stage, using concrete objects to model problems. Instead of the traditional method of maths teaching, where a teacher demonstrates how to solve a problem, the CPA approach brings concepts to life by allowing children to experience and handle physical objects themselves. Every new abstract concept is learned first with a “concrete” or physical experience.
For example, if a problem is about adding up four baskets of fruit, the children might first handle actual fruit before progressing to handling counters or cubes which are used to represent the fruit.
Pictorial is the “seeing” stage, using representations of the objects to model problems. This stage encourages children to make a mental connection between the physical object and abstract levels of understanding by drawing or looking at pictures, circles, diagrams or models which represent the objects in the problem.
Building or drawing a model makes it easier for children to grasp concepts they traditionally find more difficult, such as fractions, as it helps them visualise the problem and make it more accessible.
Abstract is the “symbolic” stage, where children are able to use abstract symbols to model problems.
Only once a child has demonstrated that they have a solid understanding of the “concrete” and “pictorial” representations of the problem, can the teacher introduce the more “abstract” concept, such as mathematical symbols. Children are introduced to the concept at a symbolic level, using only numbers, notation, and mathematical symbols, for example +, –, x, / to indicate addition, multiplication, or division.
Although we’ve presented CPA as three distinct stages, a skilled teacher will go back and forth between each representation to reinforce concepts.
Our approach encourages teachers to vary the apparatus the children use in class, for example, one day they might use counters, another day they might use a ten frame. Likewise, children are encouraged to represent the day’s maths problem in a variety of ways, for example, drawing an array, a number bond diagram or a bar model. By systematically varying the apparatus and methods they use to solve a problem, we help children to make quicker mental connections between the concrete, pictorial and abstract phases.
When teaching young children, exposing to abstract concepts too early may mean that children are missing out on the opportunity to build the conceptual mathematical understanding which they need to take them through their education. However, it should never be a case of concrete ‘good’, abstract ‘bad’. It is important to recognise that the CPA model is a progression. By the end of KS1, children need to be able to go beyond the use of concrete equipment to access learning using either pictorial representations or abstract understanding. What is important, therefore, is that all learners, however young, can see the connections between each representation.
Impact Maths No Problem will have on our children
> Children will understand how to use resources to support their learning
> Provides consistent methods across the school for your child to access
> It will challenge them to grow as mathematicians
Please take a look at this in more depth here.
You can also look at some great Parent Videos if you would like any more information.